Islamic spirituality: Purification of heart from seven diseases & love of Allah.

Aside

In his book Ihya’ `Ulum ad-Din
(Revival of the Sciences of
Religion), Imam al-Ghazali says
that every organ of our body has
a function; when it fails to do its
functions, it means it is not well.
The function of the soul or the
spiritual heart is to know its
Creator, to love Him and to seek
closeness to Him. If the heart fails
in this function then we must
know that it is sick.
It is important to know the
ailments that make the heart
weak and sick. In the language
of the Qur’an it is not only the
eyes that get blind; the hearts
also become blind.
“Do they not travel through the
land, so that their hearts may
thus learn wisdom and their
ears may thus learn to hear?
Truly it is not their eyes that are
blind, but their hearts that are in
their breasts.” (Al-Hajj: 46)
The Qur’an has spoken in many
places about the sickness
(marad) of the hearts. Allah says
in the Qur’an:
“In their hearts is a disease; and
Allah has increased their
disease: and grievous is the
penalty they (incur), because
they are false (to themselves)
.” (Al-Baqarah: 10)
When the heart gets sick, it loses
its desire and ability to do right
and good deeds. This affects the
morals and manners of a person
and his/her general behavior.
What are the major diseases that
affect the hearts and how to take
precaution and what are the
cures in case one is affected with
these ailments? Following are
some of the diseases of the
hearts:
1. Arrogance and conceit (al-kibr
wa al-ghurur)
2. Ostentation (al-riya’)
3. Jealousy or envy, hate and
deceit (al-hasad, al-hiqd, al-ghish)
4. Suspicion (su’ al-zann)
5. Anger (al-ghadab)
6. Stinginess (al-bukhl)
7. Love of jah (power, money,
position and fame)
These are called “diseases of the
heart” (amrad al-qalb) and they
lead to major sins if they are not
controlled and carefully treated.
In the Qur’an and Sunnah and in
the spiritual writings of Muslim
scholars such al-Ghazali and Ibn
al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah we find a
lot of discussion for the
treatment of these ailments.
Arrogance and conceit stem from
egotism and overestimation of
oneself and one’s abilities or
merits. This leads sometimes to
the denial of the Creator as it
happened to Satan. The best
treatment of this disease is to
cultivate modesty. We have to
remind ourselves always that we
are the servants and slaves of
Allah. We totally depend on Him
for our being and existence.
Ostentation is called “hidden
idolatry” (ash-shirk al-khafiyy). It
is a desire to show off and seek
praises from others. It takes
away sincerity and seriousness
to pursue one’s goals and
objectives. When a person
becomes too much involved with
ostentation, he/she becomes
shallow and superficial. It may
also lead to hypocrisy. The best
cure for it is to check the
intention (niyyah) before any
action. A believer must remind
oneself that his/her work is for
the sake of Allah alone.
Jealousy, envy, hate and deceit
stem from the lack of respect,
mercy and love for others. A
jealous person does not like to
see others happy, successful and
prosperous. Very often jealousy
and envy lead to hate, deceit and
violence. The best treatment is to
have positive envy by competing
with others in acts of goodness
and use this as an incentive to
achieve more and do better.
Suspicion comes from lack of
trust and confidence in others.
Allah says in the Qur’an, “Some
suspicion is sin” (Al-Hujurat: 12).
Suspicion creates cynicism and
takes away hope and optimism.
Suspicious persons or cynics are
those who, when they see
actions and hear some words
that have the possibility of being
positive or negative, they take
the negative and evil. Suspicion
sometimes also leads to violence.
It is good to be cautious and
careful, but we must keep our
attitude positive. If we want to
be trusted we must trust others
as well.
Anger is given to human beings
as a mechanism for self-defense,
but if it is not properly controlled
it becomes very destructive. In
the Hadith it is called “fire.” The
Prophet (peace and blessings be
upon him) said that when you
get angry change your
environment, change your
position, and drink some water.
Imam Ghazali said, “Love of Allah
extinguishes the fire of anger.”
Stinginess is a terrible disease.
The Prophet (peace and
blessings be upon him) taught us
to seek Allah’s refuge from
stinginess. Stinginess stems from
selfishness, materialism, and too
much love of this world. It means
lack of care and consideration
for others. It holds people from
fulfilling their duties and
recognizing the rights of others.
It leads sometimes to cheating
and dishonesty. The Prophet
(peace and blessings be upon
him) said, “Be aware of
stinginess. It destroyed many
nations before you. It made
them to shed the blood of each
other and misappropriate what
was sacrosanct.” (Reported by
Muslim)
Love of jah (i.e., the extreme
desire for money, power,
position and fame) is another
major disease of the heart. This
is also called in the Qur’an and
Hadith as “love of this
world” (hubb ad-dunya). In a
Hadith it is reported that the
Prophet (peace and blessings be
upon him) said, “Two hungry
wolves in a herd of sheep are
not as destructive and harmful
as the love of money and
extravagance are for the
religion of a person.” (Reported
by At-Tirmidhi)
The cure for this is to remind
oneself always that this world is
fitnah (a test and trial) and the
real world is the Hereafter.
Spiritual health comes with our
sincere devotion to Allah with
prayers, reading the Qur’an, and
being in the company of good
people. May Allah keep us all in
good physical, mental and
spiritual health. Ameen.”

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Law cannot remain static for long: Imam Abu Hanifa

Aside

Imam Abu Hanifa was a firm
believer that a code of laws
cannot stay static for too long, at
the risk of no longer meeting the
needs of the people. Thus he
advocated interpreting the
sources of Islamic law (usul al-
fiqh) in response to the needs of
the people at the time. This
dynamic form of legalism did not
supersede the Quran and Sunnah
(sayings and doings of the
Prophet ﷺ), of course. Instead, he
promoted the use of the Quran
and Sunnah to derive laws that
addressed the issues that people
dealt with at that time.
A major aspect of his
methodology was the use of
debate to derive rulings. He
would commonly pose a legal
issue to a group of about 40 of
his students, and challenge them
to come up with a ruling based
on the Quran and Sunnah.
Students would at first attempt
to find the solution in the Quran,
if it was not clearly answered in
the Quran, they would turn to the
Sunnah, and if it was not there,
they would use reason to find a
logical solution.
Abu Hanifa based this
methodology on the example
when Prophet Muhammad ﷺ sent
Mu’adh ibn Jabal to Yemen and
asked him how he will resolve
issues using Islamic law. Mu’adh
responded that he would look
into the Quran, then the Sunnah,
and if he does not find a direct
solution there, he would use his
best judgement, an answer that
Muhammad ﷺ was pleased with.
Using such a process for
codifying fiqh, the Hanafi
madhab (school of law) was thus
founded, based on the rulings of
Imam Abu Hanifa, and his
prominent students, Abu Yusuf,
Muhammad al-Shaybani, and
Zuffar. It became the first
codified madhab, through the
main book of Abu Hanifa’s legal
opinions, al-Fiqh al-Akbar.

The Legacy of Imam Abu Hanifa r.a

Aside

in terms explaining of how the
rulings are made. Fiqh literally
means to
understand. He mentioned that
Muhadith collected the hadeeth
and their
example is like the Pharmacists
who have a large collection of
medicines
but do not prescribe the cure.
The Faqih derive rulings based
on the
Quran and Hadeeth and they are
similar to a Doctor who
prescribes the
cure. You cannot be a Faqih
unless you are a Muhadith. He
mentioned
it was not the job of a Faqih to
collate a large number of
hadeeth
but his job is to analyse the
evidences and derive the rulings.
The
job of a Faqih is much more
difficult because you need to
have sound
knowledge of Quran and the
background of Hadeeth to come
out with the
rulings. In Hanafee Fiqh the
rulings were based on the Quran
and Hadeeth
but again here they were certain
principles in place. He mentioned
that
one of the principles is Quran is
given preference over to
Hadeeth. For
example reading Surah Fatihah in
salah, there is a Hadeeth in
Bukhari
where it mentions salah is not
valid for one who does not read
Surah
al Fatihah. However there is a
clear verse in the Quran where is
states
read whatever of the Quran is
easy for you. Therefore even if
you read
3 verses of Quran your salah will
be valid because this is Fard.
Reading
Surah al Fatihah is Wajib because
of the Hadeeth. So in summation
Hanafee
Madhab look at clear cut
evidences (Quran) and then look
at Hadeeth and
if the Hadeeth opposes the verse
than preference is given to the
Quran.
6.55 � 7.40pm Shaykh Zaheer ï
¿½ The Sacrifice and Character of
Imam
Abu Hanifah Again very inspiring,
he talked about Imam Abu
Hanifah�s
piety, worship and dedication to
Allah. He was unswerving in his
beliefs
and was steadfast in the face of
oppression. Very moving incident
was
mentioned when the ruler asked
him to take up position of chief
judge but
Imam Abu Hanifah refused. The
ruler took an oath that Imam Abu
Hanifah
will become the Chief Qadi
(Judge); Imam Abu Haifa took an
oath that
he will not. Then he mentioned
why he refused, Imam Abu
Hanifah said
it is far easier for me to take the
punishment (because he was
whipped
for refusing) in this world than
to face Allah on the day of
judgment
with some innocent soul who
was executed because I a ruling
on favour
of the ruler. Basically the position
will entail authorising verdicts
on behalf a ruler rather than
being just for the sake of Allah.
He
was whipped many times but
cried only when struck on the
face. They
thought his resolve was broken
but Imam Abu Hanifah
mentioned that I
only cry for the sake of my
mother who will see in this state
and not
for my self. Imam Abu Hanifah
was indeed like a rock and spoke
words
of truth in the face of an
oppressive ruler.
7.45 � 8.35pm Mufti Abdur-
Rahman � Aqeedah
This topic was quite complex and
the Mufti tried to simplify is as
much
as possible. He mentioned the
history of deviant sects those
went to
extremes in the attributes of
Allah. Imam Abu Hanifah firstly
refuted all
these deviant sects in Kufah and
Basrah. His intellect was amazing
and he
defeated the Khawarij, Mu’tazilah,
the Qadriyyah and the Atheists.
When
ever a controversy arose in Iraq
and nobody could handle it, they
would
refer to Imam Abu Hanifah to
debate with them. He blessed by
Allah with
such piercing insight that he
would use their arguments
against them. An
example of this is when the
Khawarij approached Imam Abu
Hanifah and told
him to repent. The Khawarij
believed if you committed a sin
you became
kaffir. Imam Abu Hanifah said is
it something you know for
certain or do
suspect that I have committed
kufr. Their leader said no it
something
we suspect, So Imam Abu
Hanifah mentioned verse of the
Quran �O you
who believe! Avoid much
suspicion; indeed some is a sinï
¿½ï¿½ (49:12)
and said now you repent
because you have committed
kufr based on your
own belief. The mufti then
mention about the classical
scholars and
how they believed in verses
regarding the attributes of Allah,
the Yad
(hand), Sight, Istawa upon the
Arsh. He said they would believe
in it
without changing the meaning
and leaving the reality unto Allah.
8.40 � 9.25pm � Shaykh Abu
Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq � The
Legacy of Imam
Abu Hanifah This was an en
excellent talk which was rich in
nature and
focused to the topic at hand.
Persia was not as we know it
today and at
that time included Afghanistan.
Imam Abu Dawud was from
Kabul. Shaykh
first talked about history of Kufa
from the times of Sahabah and
how
it developed into a centre for
learning which became the
political,
military garrison and learning
centre of the entire Islamic
Empire. He
mentioned we praise Imam Abu
Hanifah with only that much as
Allah had
given him and not more.
During the time Sayyiduna Umar
(ra) he sent Abdullah ibn Masï
¿½ud
(ra) to the people of Kufa with a
letter stating �O People of Kufa
I
am sending someone who I am
in need of but I give preference
over to
you than myself to teach your
religion so treat him well�.
Within
short many people flocked to the
gathering Abdullah ibn Masï
¿½ud (ra)
and learnt knowledge from him.
Also no fewer than 70 veterans
of Badr
settled in Kufa, along with many
other companions whose
number reached
1500. Thus Kufa became a
bustling centre for learning and
when Sayyiduna
Ali (ra) became Ameer he shifted
the capital from Madinah to Kufa.
When
he came and saw the knowledge
being spread, he remarked �O
Abdullah
you have indeed filled this land
with knowledge�. The two
persons
who were head shoulders above
the rest in knowledge from the
Sahabah
in Kufah were Sayyiduna
Abdullah ibn Mas�ud and
Sayyiduna Ali (May
Allah be pleased with them).
There were so many
knowledgeable sahabah
residing in kufa but it terms
leading lights it was Abdullah ibn
Mas�ud
and Ali (ra). Abdullah ibn Masï
¿½ud (ra) produced many
scholars but his
most leading students were
Alqama and Aswad. Their leading
student was
Ibraheem al Nakhai who was the
leading Faqih in kufa and he
produced
his leading student Hammad ibn
Sulaiman. The best and most
intelligent
student of Hammad was Imam
Abu Hanifah who travelled to
Makkah and
Madinah to learn from students
of Abdullah ibn Abbas and
Abdullah ibn
Umar (May Allah be pleased with
them). Imam Abu Hanifah was
attacked
by people throughout the ages
and Imam Muhammad would say
they only
attack him because of ignorance
and envy. Shaykh mentioned a
poem in
Arabic �They have ascribed
partners to Allah and attacked
the Prophet
(saw) so who am I that they may
not attack me�. Shaykh said if
you are
somebody than people will attack
you and if you are insignificant
than
nobody will know about you.
This has been case throughout
history. He
mentioned that Quran and
Hadeeth are like raw information
which needs to
be distilled so you can
understand it. You cannot just
pick up a book of
hadeeth and come to your own
conclusions because it is near
impossible
and this is where Imam Abu
Hanifah would discuss each
masail at length
with over 40 of his students and
then come to a verdict. They
include
masters in their own right Imam
Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad,
Yayah ibn
Ma’in, Abdullah ibn Mubarak and
many others.
Regarding Yahah ibn Ma�in,
Imam Ahmad stated if he does
not know a
hadeeth than it is not a hadeeth.
Imam Ahmad took many
narrations from
Yayah ibn Ma�in because he
was a leading Muhadith.
However despite
being the leading Muhadith
Yayah ibn Ma�in followed the
Hanafee
Fiqh very closely. Shaykh then
mentioned about people who
say Imam Abu
Hanifah did know hadeeth than
this a non starter because you
cannot be
Faqih unless you are a Muhadith.
It is true that Imam Abu Hanifah
did
not compile a book on Hadeeth
but this does take away anything
from
him because Sayyiduna Abu Bakr
(ra) only narrated few Hadeeth
and Abu
Huriarah narrated over 5200, yet
Abu Bakr (ra) knew much more
about
the Prophet (saw).
9.30 � 10.30 Shaykh Ahmad Ali
� Taqleed
He mentioned Hafidh ibn Hajjar
in great detail and how much he
knew
yet he followed the Hanbali fiqh.
The books which were written
by
him went into volumes and so
many other leading authorities
such ibn
Kathir followed one of the 4
schools of thought. These
scholars were
head and shoulders above the
contemporary scholars we have
today,
yet they adhered to a madhab